Blowing the Whistle at the FDA, Jan 2001, exposing Dearborn and how OspA causes immunosuppression rather than, "was a vaccine."
 


25 March 2017


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BarbourFishpdf.pdf
 

Pathogenic Fungi

Predicting all of GW Bush's warcrimes, Oct 2000

Trainer

 

 

 

See Also, IDSA REVIEWS, 1989, See the Duray Article, because he says the same thing there, too.  (Continue, here)
 

1992:  NASA/NIH/NIC/US Army Top Pathologist:  "In Chronic Lyme victims' cerebrospinal fluid, I see what look like Epstein-Barr transformed lymphocytes."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Duray, NASA rotating bioreactors (culturing in zero gravity) and borreliaskbook/micro/mg98/agreement.html

FY 98 INTER-AGENCY AGREEMENT

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH

and

OFFICE OF LIFE AND MICROGRAVITY SCIENCES AND APPLICATIONS

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

8. Assessment of the RWV as a "universal" pathogen culture system

Primary Investigators: Dr. Steven Hatfill, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, NICHD, NIH and USAMRIID, Dr. Paul Duray, Department of Pathology, NCI, NIH, and Dr. Michael Bray, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Ft. Detrick, MD.

Aim of Experiments: To demonstrate the potential ability of the RWV Bioreactor to act as a "universal" pathogen culture system for the primary isolation of previously unrecognized pathogens during outbreaks of emerging disease. By demonstrating the ability of the RWV to culture a variety of known pathogens of different classification, i.e. RNA viruses, retroviruses, DNA viruses, parasites, spirochetes, etc., we hope to demonstrate the applicability of the RWV system for de novo primary pathogen isolation protocols.

BACKGROUND:

At present, the de novo isolation of previously unknown or unrecognized emerging disease pathogens requires elucidating the proper culture media or permissive cell line applicable for growth of the pathogenic agent in culture. A few examples serve to illustrate the difficulty inherent in this process using conventional technology. The 1970ís outbreak of Legionaries disease required months to identify the causative agent as a bacterium. The HIV-1 retrovirus required over 2 years to isolate and in the 1993 outbreak of Myuro Canyon disease in the four-corners region of the United States it took 7 weeks to grow the Hantavirus in culture. Clearly these timelines are unacceptable with respect to many public health threat scenarios for emerging disease agents. By utilizing the ability of the RWV to maintain a normal three-dimensional cytoarchitecture and microenviroment for a number of tissues, the possibility of using human tissue explants for primary pathogen isolation, becomes a distinct possibility.

Experiment Design: Attempts will be made to culture a variety of infectious pathogen in the same simple medium (RPMI-1640, 15% FCS) containing human tonsil tissue explants maintained in the RWV Bioreactor. In addition, a human liver and epithelial tissue equivalent will be formulated from established cells lines grown on Cytodex 3 microcarrier beads. These will be co-cultured with the tonsil explants. Known pathogens which have proved to be difficult to isolate by normal protocols, will be introduced into the RWV culture and allowed to incubate with the tissue and tissue equivalents for two weeks.

Continuing Results:

1. It has been previously demonstrated that the spirochetal organism Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, grows and proliferates in this system. The system has been shown to support productive infection with HIV-1 strains. Ebola virus was also shown to the amplified in this culture system.

2. The RWV Bioreactor system has been used to study differences between human Ebola strains and Ebola Reston, a macaque strain. Human exposure to Ebola Reston causes no apparent illness, but has an almost 100% mortality rate in non-human primates (NHP). The system has allowed the demonstration that in human tissues unlike in NHPs, Ebola Reston is unable to infect the intact epithelial ling of human blood vessels and this presumably accounts for the non-pathogenicity of the strain in humans.

3. The RWV Bioreactor has also been shown to support productive infection of Monkeypox orthovirus in human lung tissues. This model will hopefully shed light on the pathogenesis of not only monkeypox but also the related smallpox.

Plans: The system will be used to further explore the tissue tropism of Ebola strains, Reston, Zaire, Sudan, and Gabon. RWV Bioreactor cultures will be used to explore the basic pathogenesis of monkeypox in both human and NHP tissues, with particular reference to postulated cytokine production. If possible, in the scientific and political context, this work will be extended to study smallpox infection in human tissues since this type of experiment has never been done before. The RWV will be used in an attempt to culture Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. This organism is notorious for its resistance to culture by conventional methods.

 9. Study of Lyme disease in RWV Bioreactor

Primary Investigators: Dr. Paul Duray, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, NIH.

Aim of Experiments: To use the RWV Bioreactor to culture Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, in tissues. Proliferation of the spirochete in tissues is desired so that the infection process and ensuing disease progression can be studied in an in vitro model. The model could be used to study the infection process and understand basic questions about the parasite, such as whether it actually infects cells or whether it replicates in intercellular spaces.

BACKGROUND:

Lyme disease is a multisystem inflammatory disease caused by infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common vector-borne infection in the United States. Borrelia burgdorferi, is able to persistently infect humans and animals for months or years in the presence of an active immune response. It is not known how the organisms survive immune attack in the mammalian host. There is not an appropriate in vitro model in which to study the progression of Lyme disease in humans or an animal model that presents all the symptoms of human disease.

Experiment Design: Tissue biopsies from patients with Lyme disease will be cultured in RWV Bioreactors to see if proliferation of spirochetes in primary infected tissue can be seen. The RWV will also be used to culture normal human tissues with Borrelia, the Lyme disease parasite, to study the infection process. Media other than BSK will be used to determine whether Borrelia is replicating in the medium in cultures or in the tissue itself, since it is known that Borrelia does not replicate in media other than BSK.

Preliminary Results:

1. Very good replication of Borrelia has been seen tonsils infected with the spirochetes. Infection has been confirmed by silver staining of tissue sections and by PCR.

2. Cultures of tonsils infected with Borrelia in media other than BSK show good replication, suggesting that the spirochete replicates in the tissue blocks and not in the medium.

Plans: Methods of quantitation of spirochete load in infected tissues are being researched so that better methods of comparison are available. With this model of infection we hope to begin studying the differences between infectious and non-infectious Borrelia. We plan to look for genetic variation of infectious spirochetes during a long-term culture.

 
1: Masters E, Granter S, Duray P, Cordes P. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Physician-diagnosed erythema migrans and erythema migrans-like rashes following Lone Star tick bites.
Arch Dermatol. 1998 Aug;134(8):955-60.
PMID: 9722725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Philipp MT, Lobet Y, Bohm RP Jr, Roberts ED, Dennis VA, Gu Y, Lowrie RC Jr, Desmons P, Duray PH, England JD, Hauser P, Piesman J, Xu K. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine against Lyme disease: efficacy in the rhesus monkey.
Vaccine. 1997 Dec;15(17-18):1872-87.
PMID: 9413097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: Granter SR, Barnhill RL, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Borrelial fasciitis: diffuse fasciitis and peripheral eosinophilia associated with Borrelia infection.
Am J Dermatopathol. 1996 Oct;18(5):465-73.
PMID: 8902092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: Nanagara R, Duray PH, Schumacher HR Jr. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and synovial membrane in chronic Lyme disease: possible factors contributing to persistence of organisms.
Hum Pathol. 1996 Oct;27(10):1025-34.
PMID: 8892586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: Granter SR, Barnhill RL, Hewins ME, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in diffuse fasciitis with peripheral eosinophilia: borrelial fasciitis.
JAMA. 1994 Oct 26;272(16):1283-5.
PMID: 7933373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: Horowitz HW, Sanghera K, Goldberg N, Pechman D, Kamer R, Duray P, Weinstein A. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Dermatomyositis associated with Lyme disease: case report and review of Lyme myositis.
Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Feb;18(2):166-71. Review.
PMID: 8161622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Reimers CD, de Koning J, Neubert U, Preac-Mursic V, Koster JG, Muller-Felber W, Pongratz DE, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi myositis: report of eight patients.
J Neurol. 1993 May;240(5):278-83.
PMID: 8326331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Capturing spirochetes from humans.
Am J Clin Pathol. 1993 Jan;99(1):4-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 8422015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9: Czub S, Duray PH, Thomas RE, Schwan TG. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Cystitis induced by infection with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in mice.
Am J Pathol. 1992 Nov;141(5):1173-9.
PMID: 1443051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10: Defosse DL, Duray PH, Johnson RC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The NIH-3 immunodeficient mouse is a model for Lyme borreliosis myositis and carditis.
Am J Pathol. 1992 Jul;141(1):3-10.
PMID: 1632468 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11: Aberer E, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Morphology of Borrelia burgdorferi: structural patterns of cultured borreliae in relation to staining methods.
J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Apr;29(4):764-72.
PMID: 1716264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12: Stiernstedt G, Dattwyler R, Duray PH, Hansen K, Jirous J, Johnson RC, Karlsson M, Preac-Mursic V, Schwan TG. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Diagnostic tests in Lyme borreliosis.
Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1991;77:136-42. No abstract available.
PMID: 1947802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13: Anderson JF, Duray PH, Magnarelli LA. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Borrelia burgdorferi and Ixodes dammini prevalent in the greater Philadelphia area.
J Infect Dis. 1990 Apr;161(4):811-2. No abstract available.
PMID: 2319174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14: Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Clinical pathologic correlations of Lyme disease.
Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Sep-Oct;11 Suppl 6:S1487-93.
PMID: 2814170 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15: Pachner AR, Duray P, Steere AC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease.
Arch Neurol. 1989 Jul;46(7):790-5.
PMID: 2742551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16: Reimers CD, Pongratz DE, Neubert U, Pilz A, Hubner G, Naegele M, Wilske B, Duray PH, de Koning J. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Myositis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi: report of four cases.
J Neurol Sci. 1989 Jun;91(1-2):215-26.
PMID: 2746290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
17: Rank EL, Dias SM, Hasson J, Duray PH, Johnson RC, Magnarelli LA, Fister RD. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Human necrotizing splenitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi.
Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 Apr;91(4):493-8.
PMID: 2648803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18: Duray PH, Asbrink E, Weber K. Related Articles, Links
No abstract The cutaneous manifestations of human Lyme disease: a widening spectrum.
Adv Dermatol. 1989;4:255-75; discussion 276. Review. No abstract available.
PMID: 2701793 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
19: Atlas E, Novak SN, Duray PH, Steere AC. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Lyme myositis: muscle invasion by Borrelia burgdorferi.
Ann Intern Med. 1988 Aug 1;109(3):245-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 3389608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20: Levy SA, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Complete heart block in a dog seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi. Similarity to human Lyme carditis.
J Vet Intern Med. 1988 Jul-Sep;2(3):138-44.
PMID: 3225808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
21: Kirsch M, Ruben FL, Steere AC, Duray PH, Norden CW, Winkelstein A. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with Lyme disease.
JAMA. 1988 May 13;259(18):2737-9.
PMID: 3357244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
22: Goellner MH, Agger WA, Burgess JH, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Hepatitis due to recurrent Lyme disease.
Ann Intern Med. 1988 May;108(5):707-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 3358572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
23: Steere AC, Duray PH, Butcher EC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Spirochetal antigens and lymphoid cell surface markers in Lyme synovitis. Comparison with rheumatoid synovium and tonsillar lymphoid tissue.
Arthritis Rheum. 1988 Apr;31(4):487-95.
PMID: 3258751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
24: Barthold SW, Moody KD, Terwilliger GA, Duray PH, Jacoby RO, Steere AC. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Experimental Lyme arthritis in rats infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
J Infect Dis. 1988 Apr;157(4):842-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 3258003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
25: Weber K, Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Apr;7(4):286-9. No abstract available.
PMID: 3130607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
26: Johnson RC, Kodner C, Russell M, Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Experimental infection of the hamster with Borrelia burgdorferi.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:258-63. No abstract available.
PMID: 3190098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
27: Anderson JF, Duray PH, Magnarelli LA. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice and Ixodes dammini at Fort McCoy, Wis.
J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;25(8):1495-7.
PMID: 3305566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
28: Duray PH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The surgical pathology of human Lyme disease. An enlarging picture.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1987;11 Suppl 1:47-60.
PMID: 3812878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
29: Duray PH, Steere AC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The spectrum of organ and systems pathology in human Lyme disease.
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A]. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):169-78.
PMID: 3577479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
30: Duray PH, Johnson RC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The histopathology of experimentally infected hamsters with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1986 Feb;181(2):263-9.
PMID: 3945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
31: Marcus LC, Steere AC, Duray PH, Anderson AE, Mahoney EB. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Fatal pancarditis in a patient with coexistent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Demonstration of spirochetes in the myocardium.
Ann Intern Med. 1985 Sep;103(3):374-6.
PMID: 4040723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
32: Steere AC, Duray PH, Kauffmann DJ, Wormser GP. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Unilateral blindness caused by infection with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
Ann Intern Med. 1985 Sep;103(3):382-4. No abstract available.
PMID: 4026085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
33: Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
Ann Intern Med. 1985 Jul;103(1):67-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 4003991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
34: Johnston YE, Duray PH, Steere AC, Kashgarian M, Buza J, Malawista SE, Askenase PW. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Lyme arthritis. Spirochetes found in synovial microangiopathic lesions.
Am J Pathol. 1985 Jan;118(1):26-34.
PMID: 3966535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]